U.S. Census Bureau

U.S. Census Bureau: Founded under Article I, Section II of the U.S. Constitution 1787 and formally declared a permanent office in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt, the U.S. Census Bureau is responsible for conducting a count of the U.S. population every 10 years. The data collected is used to determine the number of House representatives for each state as well as allocation of federal funding.

Source: Wikipedia, census.gov